DYSLIPIDEMIA 101: What is it, Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Diagnosis

DYSLIPIDEMIA 101: What is it, Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Diagnosis

DYSLIPIDEMIA – AN OVERVIEW

Dyslipidemia is defined as high blood levels of one or more kinds of lipids. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides are the three principal forms of lipids found in the blood. LDL and triglyceride levels are excessively high, while HDL levels are inadequate, resulting in dyslipidemia.

  • LDL cholesterol is the harmful cholesterol that builds up in the arteries and causes plaque to develop. A heart attack can be caused by a buildup of plaque in the arteries. HDL, on the other hand, is a healthy cholesterol that aids in the removal of harmful cholesterol from the bloodstream.
  • Triglycerides are a kind of fat that is produced when you consume too many calories and is not burned off. It is stored in fat cells and provides energy to the body when required. If you consume more calories than you burn, you may develop a triglyceride backlog.
  • Increased LDL and triglyceride levels raise the risk of heart attack and stroke, whereas a low HDL cholesterol level raises the risk of heart disease.

Different Types of Dyslipidemia

The two kinds of dyslipidemia: Primary and secondary dyslipidemia.

  • Primary dyslipidemia is inherited whereas, secondary dyslipidemia is acquired as a result of diabetes, obesity, or other metabolic disorders.

Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia and dyslipidemia are sometimes confused; however, hyperlipidemia is a condition in which LDL and triglyceride levels are extremely high, and dyslipidemia is a condition in which their levels are either high or low.

Primary dyslipidemia

Primary dyslipidemia is a condition in which the body's lipid levels. Familial mixed hyperlipidemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, polygenic hypercholesterolemia, and familial hyperapobetalipoproteinemia are the different types of primary dyslipidemia.

  • Familial mixed hyperlipidemia is a hereditary condition that causes high levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the bloodstream at a young age, increasing the risk of coronary heart disease.
  • High cholesterol levels indicate familial hypercholesterolemia and polygenic hypercholesterolemia. High amounts of apolipoprotein B, a component of LDL cholesterol, are present in familial hyperapobetalipoproteinemia.
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia is a disorder in which the body has problems metabolizing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides that can be caused by a primary or secondary illness.

SYMPTOMS

Because dyslipidemia has no noticeable symptoms, the best approach to identify it is through blood testing.

CAUSES

  • Smoking, obesity, ageing, a sedentary lifestyle, and a high consumption of saturated fat-rich meals are some of the variables that cause dyslipidemia.
  • Excessive alcohol use might raise triglyceride levels. LDL levels in women typically remain low until menopause, when they begin to rise, increasing the risk of dyslipidemia.
  • Other disorders that might increase the risk of dyslipidemia include type 2 diabetes, hypothyroidism, and chronic renal disease.

DIAGNOSIS 

Simple blood tests that contain the whole lipid profile can be used to detect dyslipidemia. It is decided if your LDL, HDL, and triglyceride levels are high, low, or in a healthy range based on your results. Because the number might fluctuate, it's always a good idea to get your blood test done once a year if you're at risk.

TREATMENT

Doctors frequently recommend statins, a type of cholesterol-lowering drug that works by reducing cholesterol synthesis in the liver.

PREVENTION

  • A key component of therapy is lifestyle management, which can help you regulate your lipid profile. Saturated fat, simple sugar, and alcohol are among the foods that must be avoided. To treat dyslipidemia, he a person should follow good eating habits that include a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, as well as lean protein and whole grains.
  • Smoking cessation
  • Regular exercise and weight loss may also assist to lower cholesterol levels.